Bone regeneration on the background of the local impact of insulin-like growth factor-1 (experimental study)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15674/0030-59872014163-71

Keywords:

insulin-like growth factor-1, bone repair, experimental model

Abstract

The problem of the optimization and stimulation of bone regeneration in orthopedics and traumatology is particularly relevant in the presence of large size and complex bone defects. Among the numerous growth factors insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one of the most important hormonal mediators and regulators of growth hormone. IGF-1 may act on bone tissue both systemically and locally. IGF-1 regulates the growth, development and differentiation of cells and tissues and in particular of bone tissue. However, it should be noted that most existing studies consider of the IGF-1 influence on the bone tissue growth, development and metabolism with study of the mechanism of its action at the molecular level. Action of IGF-1 on bone regeneration, especially in the early stages of the fracture healing was shown insufficient.

Purpose: to study peculiarities of bone osteogenesis in bone defect created in rats’ femur after local impact of IGF-1 with using of morphological methods.

Methods: experimental study was performed on 30 white outbred laboratory rats (2 month old, weight 150 ±15 g). Two groups of experiments were carried out:

1st group – modeling perforated defect in the distal metaphysis of the femur (control, 15 animals);

2nd group – modeling perforated defect in the distal metaphysis of the femur and the treatment of animals with IGF-1 (experimental, 15 animals).

0.08 microgram of IGF-1 was introduced in the defects of experimental animals at 1st and 3rd days after surgery.

For morphological study the animals were sacrificed in 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery.

We used morphological, morphometric and transmission electron microscopic methods for assessing of bone repair process. Morphometry of areas of newly formed bone in the defect was performed.

Results: during electron microscopic analysis of the bone defect area at the distal metaphysis of the femur of rats treated with IGF-1 (3rd day after surgery) it was shown that functionally active macrophages with numerous secondary lysosomes and phagosomes in the cytoplasm were located in hematoma. That reflects more active process of bone wound cleaning from fibrin degradation products than in the control group. During ultrastructural analysis of the bone defect of rats treated with IGF-1 on the 5th day after surgery functional activity of fibroblasts was demonstrated. On the 7th  day density of osteoblasts increased in the experimental animals as compared with control group. The improvement of quality of the adjacent bone was shown. Apposition formation of bone in lysis areas, cracks and fissures was founded. Bone area in the defect of experimental animals was increased by 19.86 % on the 14th day and by 24.78 % on the 21st day as compared with control animals.

Conclusions: IGF-1 stimulates bone osteogenesis.

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