Metabolism and mineral one density in thyrotoxicosis (literature review)
Keywords:hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, thyroid hormones, fractures
AbstractObjective: based on information analyze research bone tissue in terms of hyperthyroidism — pathological conditions caused by increased blood levels of thyroid hormones. In physiological concentrations thyroid hormones (thyroxine (T4) and triyodtironin (T3)) play important role in the development of the skeleton, achieving peak bone mass and maintaining it in adulthood. It is proved effect of thyroid hormones on bone cells is carried out with hormonreceptor interaction. Receptors for them and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) revealed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The presence of calcium in the skeleton, mainly defines the bone mineral density. In the case of hyperthyroidism negative calcium balance and lowered bone density observed in 10–20 % of patients regardless of age. This is due to disorders of bone remodeling with a disproportionate increase in bone resorption compared to bone, it’s activation does not compensate the loss of bone mass. In patients with hyperthyroidism recorded reduced blood serum concentrations of vitamin D, negatively impacts the metabolism of bone tissue and results in to low bone mineral density. With hyperthyroidism progression increases the concentration of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum, osteocalcin, and osteoproteherin and fibroblastiv 23 growth factor, that testifies bone resorption. Women in pre and postmenopausal hyperthyroidism are at risk for osteoporosis and fracture. The likelihood of fractures in postmenopausal women increased by 2.2 times compared to women without hyperthyroidism.
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