Modern trends in development of artificial joints for human (literature review)

Volodymyr Filipenko, Volodymyr Tankut, N. Melnyk-Kahliak, Oleksandr Kosiakov, Sergiy Sokhan


Total hip replacement due to its effectiveness is the most com­mon treatment for patients with severe diseases of the joints. The modern idea of the choice of materials (and methods of their application as a pair of friction) for the replacement of large joints are described, set the scope of the problems and possible their solutions. We characterize some direc­tions of improvement of artificial human joints. It was em­phasized that so far there is no perfect pair of friction in ar­tificial joints, and it determines the choice of the surgeon, taking into account the anatomical and physiological state of the patients joint. The search continues for ways to im­prove the mechanical, tribological and biological proper­ties of friction pairs in artificial joints based on the cre­ation of ceramic, plastic, sapphire and composite materials with new properties. However, the full potential of the developed polymer composites, carbon nanotubes, graphene needs in-depth study of their cytotoxicity, which to date is a matter of debate. Based on the analysis of trends in the field of ma­terials for friction pairs in joint endoprostheses, the authors identified two major technological trends for the near future. First, it is the development of structure-hardened surface layer with a low coefficient of friction (ie. natural oxide films instead of coating) on the metal components. Secondly, it can be the development of new ceramic shock-viscous materi­als with minimized risk for crack formation in the ceramic-ceramic joints.


arthroplasty; polyethylene liner; carbon nanotubes; graphene hybrid prostheses; structurally hardened surface layer of ceramic prosthetic femoral heads


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