Structural and functional properties of articular cartilage under various loading modes (literature review)
Keywords:articular cartilage, physiological and non-physiological stress, immobilization, distraction, posttraumatic extra-articular deformity
The formation of extra-articular traumatic deformities is a complication that occurs in about a third of cases with nonunion or pseudarthrosis after isolated diaphyseal fractures of long bones.
Objective: based on the analysis of scientific information to determine the structural and functional properties of articular cartilage (AC) under physiological and non-physiological load to determine the impact on extra-articular traumatic deformities of the long bones.
Methods: he literature search conducted by e-databases (PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, RISC), monographs, dissertations, abstracts of dissertations in the last 20 years.Results: physiological load plays a key role in the development, operation, and maintenance of homeostasis nutrition of AC. Its increase, decrease or non-physiological redistribution is one of the biggest factors of structural and functional disorders in the AC and, accordingly, the development of osteoarthritis. Today, ongoing study of the effect of mechanical stimuli of varying duration and strength of the functioning of cells and structural features of the AC matrix. We describe some of the mechanotransduction ways. It was found that excessive exercise, immobilization of a limb, its lengthening by distraction osteosynthesis leads to the development of structural and functional disorders in the AC in knee and ankle joints, which progresses with time. Subsequently, the destructive changes noted in the AC in contralateral limb. In clinical researches the relationship between the existence of stable post-traumatic deformities of the long bones of the limbs and the development of osteoarthritis are studied. However, it has not been studied terms destructive affection in the joints, their severity in relation to the magnitude of deformation reversibility after restoring the anatomical axis of the limb.
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