Structural peculiarities of m. quadriceps of femur in experimental rats in the conditions of femur deformity forming




muscles, femur, posttraumatic deformity, histology, rats, experiment


Stable posttraumatic deformities of long bones lead to changes in interrelationships in damaged segments that could cause dysfunction of muscles and ligaments, joint surface integrity and range of motion in limb joints.

The goal: to investigate in experiment on rats the structural peculiarities of muscles adjacent to peak of posttraumatic femur diaphysis deformity.

Methods: varus deformity on the level of middle third of femur diaphysis was simulated on 15 white mature rats (age at the beginning of study — 6 moths). Preshaped K-wire (with appropriate size and angle 35°) was inserted in the intramedullary canal after transversal osteotomy to create deformity. Euthanasia was performed 1, 3 and 6 moths after operation followed by histological investigation.

Results: 1 month after deformity modeling the most severe destructive changes were noticed in muscle fibers adjacent to the peak of deformity on convex side. Tortuosity, swelling, loss of cross striation, nucleus pycnosis with their migration towards the center of fibers, edema of endomysium and perimysium were found. The severity of destructive changes decreased at the distance of the zone of deformity modeling. 3 months after operation the most severe destructive changes in muscle fibers were observed on the convex side of deformity as well. 6 months after deformity modeling on the both convex and concave sides of deformed bone the structure of muscle fibers generally corresponded to the structure of muscle structure of intact animals of appropriate age. The absence of difference in the structure of muscles on convex and concave sides of deformity on this term caused by their restructuring as a reaction to prolonged stress.

Conclusions: structural-function peculiarities of the muscle of injured extremity should be taken into consideration while planning the tactics of treatment of long bones posttraumatic treatment.


Fayaz CY, Giannoudis CV, Vrahas MS, Smith RM, Moran C, Pape HC, Krettek C, Jupiter JB. The role of stem cells in fracture healing and nonunion. Int Orthop. 2011;35(11):1586–1597. doi: 10.1007/s00264-011-1338-z.

Popsuishapka O, Uzhigova O, Litvishko V. Rate of nonunion and delayed union of fragments in isolated diaphyseal fractures of long bones of the extremities. Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Prosthetics. 2013;(1):39–43. doi: 10.15674/0030-59872013139-43.

Marti RK, van Heerwaarden RJ. Osteotomies for posttraumatic deformities. First ed., Georg Thieme Verlag, 2008. 704 p.

Romanenko KK. Nonunion diaphyseal fractures of long bones (risk factors, diagnosis, treatment): abstract dis. The candidate of medical sciences. Kharkiv, 2002. 19 p.

European convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 18 Mar 1986.

Histing T, Garcia P, Holstein JH, et al. Small animal bone healing models: standards, tips, and pitfalls results of a consensus meeting. Bone. 2011;49(4):591–599. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.07.007.

Romanenko K, Ashukina N, Goridova L, Prozorovsky D. Method of modeling of long bone fractures. Patent 92613 UA. МPK A61B 17/56 (2006.01). № u201402967; 24.03.2014; 26.08.2014; Bul. No 16.

Sarkisov DS, Perov YuL. Microscopic technics – Microskopicheskaya teknika. Moscow: Medicine, 1996. 542 p.

De Deyne PG, Kinsey S, Yoshino S, Jensen-Vick K. The adaptation of the soleus and the EDL in a rat model of distraction osteogenesis: IGF-1 and fibrosis. J Orthop Res. 2002;20(6):1225–1231. doi: 10.1016/S0736-0266(02)00047-5.

Thorey F, Bruenger J, Windhagen H, Witte F. Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis. J Orthop Res. 2009;27(4):483–488. doi: 10.1002/jor.20784.

Tyazhelov O, Poletaeva N, Romanenko K, Goridova L, Prozorovsky D. Mathematical modelling of diaphyseal deformities of the long bones. Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Prosthetics. 2010;(3):61–63. doi:


Diedukh N, Ashukina N, Romanenko K, Goridova L. The course of reparative osteogenesis in modeling varus deformity of the femur of rats. Ukrainskiy medychniy almanakh. 2010;13(3):67–70.

Harry LE, Sandison A, Pearse MF, Paleolog EM, Nanchahal J. Comparison of the vascularity of fasciocutaneous tissue and muscle for coverage of open tibial fractures. J Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124(4):1211–1219. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181b5a308.

Liu R, Schindeler A, Little DG. The potential role of muscle in bone repair. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2010;10(1):71–76.

Hamrick MW, McNeil PL, Patterson SL. Role of muscle-derived growth factors in bone formation. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2010;10(1):64–70.

Tagliaferri C, Wittrant Y, Davicco MJ, Walrand S, Coxam V. Muscle and bone, two interconnected tissues. Ageing Res Rev. 2015;21:55–70. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2015.03.002.

Liu R, Birke O, Morse A, Peacock L, Mikulec K, Little DG, Schindeler A. Myogenic progenitors contribute to open but not closed fracture repair. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12: Article 288. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-288.

Willett NJ, Li MT, Uhrig BA, Boerckel JD, Huebsch N, Lundgren TL, Warren GL, Guldberg RE. Attenuated human bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated bone regeneration in a rat model of composite bone and muscle injury. Tissue Eng. Part C Methods. 2013;19(4):316–325. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2012.0290.

Fink B, Neuen-Jacob E, Lienert A, Francke A, Niggemeyer O, Rüther W. Changes in canine skeletal muscles during experimental tibial lengthening. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001;385:207–218.