Phantom pain: pathogenesis, clinical features, complex conservative therapy (review)

Vasyl Makolinets, Viktorya Melnik, Tamara Grashchenkova

Abstract


In this review we analyzed and systematized modern studies on phantom pain (FP) due to amputation of extremities of different etiologies. An appearance of FP after amputation of extremity or of its part is a complicated medical and social problem which has not any optimal solution till now. In this article we reviewed relevance, etiology, clinical picture , pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of FP using non-drug methods. Relevance of FP problem stipulates increasing number of victims of military conflicts, natural disasters, man-made disasters as well as significant specific weight of occlusive lesions of the lower extremities vessels and tumors. In the structure of its spreading more than half amount of cases of FP takes mine-explosive and fragmentув injuries of the extremities. To preconditions of FP belongs inadequate anesthesia during surgery, advanced age, the dominant limb amputation, previous psychologi­cal disorders, pain in the stump under conditions of inflammatory and degenerative changes in muscles, somatic burdeness. The au­thors presented the complex of treatment for this pathology which includes invasive methods of treatment, pharmacotherapy, using of physical factors, reflexotherapy, functional rehabilitation, methods of biofeedback therapy, psyhotherapy. There was underlined the lack of a unified view of experts on the effectiveness of different methods of conservative treatment, sequence, combination and duration of their using. The authors concluded that for achieve­ment of optimal therapeutic effect it is possible just by individual multimodal and integrated approach where an important role play factors of non-drug treatment. There was outlined some promising areas of research in medical rehabilitation of patients with FP in order to determine the role, sequence and combination of methods of conservative therapy.


Keywords


phantom pain; treatment with preformed factors; conservative treatment

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15674/0030-598720153110-115

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