Bone densitometry in clinical practice
Keywords:bone mineral density, spine, hip joint, forearm
AbstractIn this paper an information on the features of bone densitometry on DEXA devices was presented, and basic errors that can occur during the execution of the study or assessment of patients data after their examination were specified. Bone densitometry is an important informative method of examination allowing to detect not only qualitative and quantitative indicators of bone condition but to perform also monitoring which is important after medicament therapy for evaluation of effectiveness of treatment of osteoporosis. The method makes it possible to detect deformations and fractures of the vertebral bodies as well as to assess quantitatively change of their shape. For measurement of bone mineral density on the lumbar spine they use AP-projection LI–LIV. If in the area of the research there are vertebrae with destructive disorders they exclude them from the analysis and carry out diagnostics according two vertebral bodies without any violations. The difference between the vertebral bodies should not be 1 SD in accordance with T-criterion. Orthopedic programs incorporated into the device make it possible to describe bone tissue condition in the area of contact with the implant after arthroplasty. Quantitative evaluation of bone mass adjacent to the implant implanted into the hip joint they performed in Gruen zones which they determine in frontal plane with the prone position of a patient after 2–3 weeks after arthroplasty and consider as basic assessment. One may assess the condition of the entire skeleton, fat and fat-free body mass which is important for examination of children and patients with endocrine disorders, identifying sarkopenia, in the case of obesity, malabsorption syndrome and so on. Interpreting the results one should also take into account some features of this method of patient examination for reducing the risk of diagnostic errors.
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