DENYING TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY IN SMOKERS, PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE OR IN PATIENTS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES. WHY?
Keywords:Human immunodeficiency viruses, alcohol abuse, smoking, total hip arthroplasty, postoperative complication
Nowadays total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most successful surgical procedures in the world and the number of procedures performed is growing every year. However, its success largely depends on the absence of postoperative complications. Among the risk factors affecting the occurrence of postoperative complications are smoking, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), obesity, anemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, renal failure and dialysis, depression and anxiety. In the presented manuscript, such factors as HIV, smoking and alcohol abuse were considered. In smokers, bone regeneration slows down due to impaired bone metabolism and a slowdown in vascular recovery. Alcohol abuse affects human immunity, inhibiting T-helper cells, and also causing blood coagulation disorders. Alcohol abuse increases the risk of hospital complications, surgery related complications and general medical complications. Smoking can increase the risk of septic
complications (lower respiratory tract infection, sepsis, urinary tract infection), myocardial infarction, risk of aseptic loosening of implants. Mortality was also higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. HIV increases bone fragility, debilitation, rate of cardiovascular diseases and decreases the number of CD4+ cells in the blood, which directly affects the risk of periprosthetic joint infections and revision. All three factors increase the patient's length
of stay in the hospital after THA. Currently, recommendations have been developed for preventive measures that need to be taken to reduce the risk of postoperative complications by performing primary THA. According to the recommendations, quitting smoking and drinking alcohol 4 weeks before THA will significantly reduce the risk of postoperative complications. For HIV-positive patients, antiretroviral therapy and subsequent assessing the viral load are
required prior to THA. Preoperative care in this category of patients, undergoing primary THA, can reduce the risk of complications.
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